What you,ll learn: Characteristics of living organisms and their kingdoms, Diversity in the living world, Binomial Nomenclature, Taxonomy, Systematics, Herbarium, Botanical Gardens, Museum, Zoological Parks, Key, Biological Classification.

What is Biology?

It is a scientific branch that is related with the living creatures and their body’s functions. There is a huge variety of living creatures on this planet. The distinction between living creatures and non-living matter was seen by early man. Definite arrangement of identification of organisms and further their nomenclature started later. This prompted the acknowledgement of sharing similarity among life forms. Man could perceive that all the present day living beings are identified with each other furthermore to those which ever lived on this planet. The parts of this unit manage the qualities of living creatures and their characterisation living organisms show a great biodiversity and are classified into different kingdoms- Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

Some Characteristics of living Organisms

  • Living Organisms has the ability to grow. Increase in mass and increase in number of individuals are essential creation for the growth of the living organisms. Growth of multicellular organisms occurs due to cell division.
  • Reproduction is another characteristic of living organisms.
  • Metabolism is another characteristic of living organisms. There are various catabolic and anabolic reactions occurs in an organism throughout their life.
  • Cellular organisation is the defining feature of all characteristics organisms.
  • Living organisms are able to respond to the external Stimuli.

Diversity in the living World

The process of naming of an organism is known as Nomenclature. It was given by Carolus Linnaeus and is utilised by scientists everywhere throughout the world.

International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) helps the scientist from all over the world to interact with each other using the same name.

Each name consists of two parts- the first part is the generic name and the second part is the name of the species. This arrangement of naming is called Binomial Nomenclature.

Examples: Homo sapiens (Man), Mangifera indica (Mango).

In this case, Homo and Magnifera are the generic names; sapiens and indica are specific epithets.

Rules for Nomenclature

  1. Biological names are in latin and written in italics.
  2. The first word represents the Genus and the second represents the Species.
  3. Both the words, that is Genus and Species name should be underlined.
  • The first word Genus starts with a Capital letter and second word Species starts with a small letter.
  • Name of the author comes after Species name.


It is the process of assigning creatures in particular groups or classes taking into account some defined characters. These classes are called Texa (sign. taxon) (taxa: taxonomy)

Taxa is defined as the group of organisms or population presented as same unit based on some characteristics.

Taxonomy: It is the investigation of identification, nomenclature and arrangement of life forms taking into account outer and inside structure with cell structure, advancement process and biological data.


It is the investigation of life forms with reference to identification, nomenclature, arrangement and evolutionary correspondence.

Taxonomic Categories:

Taxonomic Categories
Taxonomic Categories.

Species: Group of individuals which are capable to interbreeding is known as Species.

Genus: It represents a group of related species which share one or more characteristics in common.

Family: It includes group of related genera but with less similarities with genus and species. In case of plants, family contains both vegetative and reproductive features.

for example: Datura, Solanum and Petunia are placed in a family known as Solanaceae.

Order: It is the assemblage of families with only few similarities.

Class: Related order are included in class. for example, class Mammalia includes order primata along with order Carnivora.

Phylum: Different classes combine to form phylum. Fishes, amphibian, reptiles, birds and mammals are placed in the Phylum chordata kingdom.

Kingdom: Different phylum forms forms the kingdom whereas plants are placed in plant kingdom.

Domain: It is placed on the highest position. Kingdom forms a domain.


Herbarium Orignal
Herbarium Storeroom.
  • It is the storeroom of gathered plant samples.
  • Gathered plant samples are dried, squeezed and protected on sheets and then they are systematically arranged as per the classification system accepted universally.
  • Herbarium sheet contains mark in regards to date, scientific name, spot of the gathering, collector’s name, family and so on of the sample.
  • Studying plant taxonomy.
  • To identify the flora of the area.
  • It stores the historic record of vegetation with time.
  • Source of plant DNA is used in plant taxonomy.
  • Study of molecular taxonomy.
  • Repository for viable seeds of rare species.

Herbarium sheet

Herbarium Orignal
Herbarium Sheet.



Botanical Gardens

  • Collection of living plants for reference.
  • They also contain special collections such as alpine plants, exotic plants, tropical plants etc.


They are meant for educational purpose mainly.

for example: They are usually set up in colleges, schools etc.

Zoological Parks

These are park in which animals are kept in enclosure and displaced to common public. They are meant for recreation purposes.


It is a taxonomic aid for identification of plants and animals based on certain similarities and dissimilarities.

The Role of Zoological Parks in Wildlife Conservation




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